July 5, 2022

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How is the variant of Kovid-19 born?

How is the variant of Kovid-19 born?
Since the outbreak of the Kovid-19 epidemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) has listed dozens of variants. It has set up a database to share the research results of all laboratories working on SARS-Cove 2 genome sequencing. This constant monitoring makes it possible to identify them.

(See again: In France, a team of researchers is tracking mutations in Kovid-19

How is the variant born?

Like all viruses, the SARS-Cov-2 virus that causes Kovid-19 reproduces. Scientists say they are reflecting on themselves. During this replication, errors may occur, and its RNA sequence (consisting of 30,000 nucleotides, encoded with the letters A, U, G, or C) may be replaced with another letter, deleted, or added. This is called a mutation.

What is RNA?

LRibbonucleic acid, or RNA, is a living molecule whose molecular structure is similar to that of DNA. It is made up of a single helical chain with a structure similar to one of the 2 chains that make up DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Cells use RNA as an intermediate carrier for genes to synthesize the proteins they need. (SeeInsert, National Institute of Health and Medical Research).

In most cases, these random mutations do not have a major effect on the virus. In other cases, they modify proteins that affect its transmission capacity, its replication speed, or its ability to bypass our immune system. In these specific cases, the virus becomes more effective than the “original” version of SARS-Cove-2 and spreads more easily in the population. And the likeWHO, The more the virus circulates in the population, the more likely it is to mutate.

Four types of variations

Each mutation is the source of a different variant so there are thousands of variants. Each mutation type leads to a specific name and all variants qualify under a specific name. The scientific community seeks to establish an ideal nomenclature, and during this time, many nomenclature systems coexist.

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In May 2021, to facilitate their naming and avoid any stigma associated with geographical locations, the WHO decided to name the worries variants with the Greek alphabet.

The results of this research have been centralized by the WHO, which has established four Categories The main thing to classify them.

The Variations of anxiety (Variant of anxiety) Signature:

– Alpha variant detected in the United Kingdom in September 2020
– Beta variant, launched in South Africa in May 2020,
– Gamma variant, launched in Brazil in November 2020
– and the popular Delta variant, launched in India in October 2020

These variants are unique in enhancing the transmissibility or evolution of the epidemiology of Kovid-19. They can increase its viralness or reduce the effectiveness of public health and social activities, diagnostic tools, vaccines and available treatments.

Omicron is classified as a variant of anxiety by the US Center for Disease Research. CDC, And from November 25thWHO.

(RE) Read: Kovid-19: What we know and do not know about the new Omicron variant

The Variations to follow (VOI or variant of interest):
– Lambda was discovered in Peru in December 2020
– Mu was discovered in January 2021 in Colombia

These variants exhibit genetic mutations that affect or affect the spread of the virus, the severity of the disease, and the ability to escape the diagnosis, leading to significant community transmission or multiple outbreaks in many countries.

No more infections, no more mutations

The result is an increasing relative prevalence (a measure of the health status of a population at a given time) as well as other epidemiological consequences that increase the number or risk of cases over time. The mutation rate of a virus is primarily influenced by its global prevalence: therefore, a higher number of infections means a greater number of more dangerous mutations, says Peter Sands, Director Global Fund Fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria.

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The Variations in surveillance (VUM, supervised variants) 14 and listed in different countries between March 2020 and May 2021. These variants include Kappa, Iota and Eta.

(RE) Read: Delta, Lambda, Beta … The list of Kovid-19 variants is growing

The Previously tracked variants Older types of anxiety have been reclassified, as they are no longer transmitted or they no longer pose levels of impact on global public health. They are currently 13 years old, including Epsilon, Zeta and Theta.

Are vaccines effective against variants?

For the WHO, vaccines are in development “Provide at least some protection against new variants of the virus” Because they receive a large-scale immune response involving antibodies and cells. Therefore mutations in the virus should not completely replace the vaccine.

(See again: Kovid-19: Will Europe have to rebuild itself? Analysis by epidemiologist Catherine Hill

For Peter Sands, director of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, for all major public health organizations, the best way to prevent the spread of the virus is to continue current efforts aimed at reducing transmission.

To defeat this virus, we need a global response.
Peter Sands is the Executive Director of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

The British banker, who heads the $ 4 billion international fund that fights the pandemic every year, sounded the alarm on September 15.

“Even in countries with high levels of vaccine coverage, the Delta variant’s wave tells us one thing: Vaccines alone will not defeat Kovid-19.

In fact, we have seen the effects of the Delta variant and now Omicron in countries with high levels of vaccine coverage, such as Israel or the United Kingdom.

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(See again: United Kingdom: Omicron kills first

Michael Ryan, who is in charge of emergency operations at the WHO, explains in a recent interview with the agency France Press that it is impossible for the world to deal with new, more dangerous variations, for example, a series of waves, tearing down health systems. .

But the 56-year-old Irish epidemiologist has spent most of his life fighting the spread of Ebola, cholera or polio. “I see a better future” He insisted. He believes that if “We take health measures (and) seriously in terms of increased vaccination coverage”, We can overcome the epidemic phase. “I’m filled with optimism about what we can achieve collectively.”, He concluded.